Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants and are present in sufficient concentrations for efficient commercial extraction in sugarcane and sugar beet. Sugar is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources.
Chana is also known as channay or chole, is a dish in Indian cuisine and Pakistani cuisine. The main ingredient is a variety of chickpea called chana. They are much smaller than typical chickpeas with a stronger flavour and firmer texture even after being cooked. Chole is the name for the larger and lighter coloured chickpea commonly found in the West.
Maize is mainly a rainfed kharif crop which is sown just before the onset of monsoon and is harvested after retreat of the monsoon. In Tamil Nadu it is a rabi crop and is sown a few weeks before the onset of winter rainy season in Sept. and Oct. It requires 50-100 cm of rainfall and it cannot be grown in areas of more than 100 cm rainfall.
Soybean is hailed as the most protective bean. Soy contains 26 percent protein. It has the highest protein content amongst plant products. “Soy protein” refers to the protein found in soybeans. As animal protein contains all the essential amino acids, lacking in pulse protein, soy is often used to replace the animal proteins in an individual's diet. Soybean is the only vegetable food that contains all eight essential amino acids. Soybeans are processed into various soy products namely soy flour, soy milk, cottage cheese like tofu, fermented products like tempeh and miso.
Rice is high in carbohydrates, contains almost no fat, is cholesterol free, and is low in sodium, unless you add salt to the cooking water. Generally all rice both brown and white is considered a good of vitamins and minerals. Rice is a protein containing all eight essential amino acids. It is low in the amino acid lysine, which is found in beans making the classic combination of rice and beans, popularly known as complimentary proteins, a particularly healthful dish. Rice is gluten free and easily digestible making it a good choice for infants and people with wheat allergies or digestive problems.
Wheat is one of the oldest and most important of the cereal crops. Of the thousands of varieties known, the most important are common wheat, used to make bread; durum wheat, used in making pasta such as spaghetti and macaroni; and club wheat, a softer type, used for cake, crackers, cookies, pastries, and flours. Some wheat is used by industry for the production of starch, paste, malt, dextrose, gluten. Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for leavened, flat and steamed breads, biscuits, cookies, cakes, breakfast cereal, pasta, noodles, couscous.